Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Is Leadership Failing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Is Leadership Failing - Essay Example Both these parts of authorities are examined. Poor vision is showed from absence of arranging and overlooking greatness. Low degree of trust is apparent from the consequences of various examinations and reviews leading in the field. From various articles and works of researchers plainly trust is significant factor which is absent in momentum corporate administration. It is prerequisite of current corporate authority to create trust so as to make initiative compelling. There is no uncertainty in the capacities and possibilities of authority the things they need are to cultivate trust and show vision. Watchwords: Corporate Leadership, Vision, Trust. Is Leadership Failing? Significance Leadership is the quintessence of any fruitful endeavor. From national level to corporate level, wherever the significance of authority needs no delineation. Great administration is must for the turn of events and development of business. In corporate world there is parcel of accentuation on great authori ty abilities and characteristics. There are parcel of studies and speculations with respect to successful initiative. These materials assist us with understanding various patterns and styles of initiative. The inquiry with respect to the nature of initiative is one of the oft examined issues of corporate world. There is developing concern with respect to nature of authority and this worry is included by the discoveries of various overviews and studies. There are numerous issues related with low quality of initiative. ... The worry with respect to declining norms of initiative is certified and there is critical need to investigate the issue before things gain out of power. Initiative is connected with individuals in this way there is no single hypothesis to clarify pioneers and authority. Various researchers have attempted to clarify these terms with their own field of study. Improvement of the executives science has contributed a lot in the investigation of administration. The principle focal point of the board researchers is corporate and business area. The accentuations of researchers stay on the investigation of initiative and its various styles. No single hypothesis is finished in itself however assist us with understanding various perspectives. There are numerous parts of initiative and variables liable for the decay. The principle focal point of current audit will be on vision and trust. These two characteristics are significant for powerful authority and current emergency in initiative is to a huge degree as a result of the low degree of vision and trust. Vision can be characterized as an organized understanding or tendency. It is an envisioned or assumed model of joint prospects to which others can be pulled in, given the important intrigue and catalyst with respect to the pioneer who is dispersing that vision. Vision of a pioneer makes him not the same as others. The capacity to predict and afterward act as needs be is must for any compelling initiative. Lamentably larger part of US corporate authority is inadequate in vision. They neglect to see future world or they are very much an excess of involved in their ordinary undertakings. Choices are made in present moment and there is little spotlight on long haul and tough strategy for future. This talks volume of absence of vision. It was absence of vision which is dependable

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Crazy Eddie Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Insane Eddie - Case Study Example Inside evaluators are answerable for misrepresentation at Crazy Eddie as they are the ones submitting and hiding extortion to both outside reviewers and the overall population (Buchholz, 2011). . The calculations above don't demonstrate any issue at Crazy Eddie. The gross edge proportion of 24%, however it probably won't be convincing, shows that the organization is working a solid business and may have the option to support its working costs. The stock turnover proportion as well, demonstrates that the organization turnover is high and henceforth sound at 482%. 2. There were a few hindrances to autonomy at Crazy Eddie. Evaluators at Crazy Eddie’s case couldn't distinguish extortion due significant level misrepresentation conceal from suppliers’ side to its purchasers. Extortion happened on numerous fronts; liabilities and uses, resource valuations, invented income, exposures and bookkeeping period contrasts. Liabilities and costs were disguised like unpaid bills wouldn’t be pronounced and paid in the following budgetary year of held for significant stretches. Bookkeeping periods would not be cut off at normal interims so as to include great deals happening after what ought to have been a shut book, to blow up income dishonestly. On resources, some were exaggerated or the organization utilized stunts like getting the product that would not be paid for right away. They likewise used to dispatch stock starting with one store then onto the next as evaluating was spread out in stores henceforth twofold checking (Knapp, 2013) . 3. On the off chance that I were an accomplice to review Crazy Eddie, I would acknowledge to review this organization completely as it was a family element with all administration positions saved for relatives. This was one indication of some shortcoming as relatives can control bookkeeping methods, and absence of legitimate direct can be undermined. Important as well, was the way that this organization was described by publicity about its prosperity. The insane publicity ought to be a

Thursday, July 30, 2020

Got test anxiety Sal Khan shares tips for reducing stress before your exam

Got test anxiety Sal Khan shares tips for reducing stress before your exam Are you stressed about a test you have coming up? You’re not alone! A couple of weeks ago, Sal Khan shared his advice for managing exam anxiety.   We got lots of amazing responses to his suggestions, and we’d love to share them with you.  â€œListening to Sals tips just reminds me that I am not alone. Thank you so much Khan Academy.”â€"@alexiawpyisnow on Instagram“I appreciate this more than you can imagine. Its been rough. I wish every kid on earth could see this video.”â€"Umar on Youtube“I need more Sal in my life. Can he just be there and coach us through all of life’s challenges?”â€"@ferenstein on Twitter“Today, your words made me cry This Friday I have another physics exam, and Ive been stressing pretty hard. Your reminder that we, as people, are not defined by test scores really struck a chord in me. I needed to hear that. Thank you for all you do for people everywhere and all youve already done for me. You rock, Sal!”â€"Beautiful on YoutubeIf you’ve alrea dy watched   Sal’s test jitters video and taken his advice, then you’ve been busy! In the weeks leading up to an exam, Sal recommends three strategies:Build a habit of practiceâ€"take practice tests, identify your strengths and weaknesses, and work on your weaknesses on a regular basis.Share your feelingsâ€"talk about your insecurities with people you trust and find people who can support you.Keep a bigger perspectiveâ€"remember that a test score does not define you and that real happiness is knowing who you are.So now that it’s the night before your big test, what can you do to set yourself up for success tomorrow? Sal Khan is back with three more tips to help you put your best foot forward on test day.Take Sal’s advice and turn off your device, go spend some time with your family or close friends, watch a show, and laugh a little.

Friday, May 22, 2020

William Penn Essay - 727 Words

William Penn William Penn was born and raised in England, but he is well known for what he did in the Americas. First and foremost, William Penn was a religious nonconformist and writer: he wrote numerous religious books over his lifetime. Second, Penn is responsible for the â€Å"holy experiment†: the colony of Pennsylvania. He was a Quaker advocate, and as a proprietor had the opportunity to practice the Quaker Peace testimony. Penn was interested in religion from the time he was a child. When he was twelve years old he had the opportunity to hear testimony from a traveling Quaker minister, Thomas Loe. Penn was touched by Loe’s message, and sought the ‘authentic Christian message’ rather then focusing on ‘institutional’ religion. At the†¦show more content†¦He wanted to get the word out about his religion and he wasn’t going to be discouraged. After William was released, he wrote Innocency with Her Open Face, and wrote a number of other works on his Quaker faith. In 1681, Penn and 11 other Quakers brought the Proprietary rights to east New Jersey. King Charles II owed Penn’s father, Admiral Sir William Penn, and in return Penn persuaded the king to grant him a â€Å"vast province on the west bank of the Delaware River† (Samuel, 2000). It was named Pennsylvania, which means Penn’s woods, after his father. Penn decided that his colony was going to be different from the rest of the colonies in that they were going to be a Quaker based colony. He believed in a â€Å"divine right of government† and formed the government of Pennsylvania as a â€Å"holy experiment† in governing. This type of government is considered being ahead of its time as it set forth a representative form of government. The penal system was designed to reform not just punish, and â€Å"all prisoners except capital prisoners were entitled to bail, work houses were substituted for dungeons and the death penalty was limited to murder and treason †. Also, Penn instituted public education and designed Philadelphia and other towns to promote health and fire safety. Being that Penn was in charge of the colony, he was given the opportunity to practice the Quaker Peace Testimony. He realized that a lot of the land that he was living onShow MoreRelatedWilliam Penn Summary2561 Words   |  11 PagesWilliam Penn Summary and Legacy John A. Morettam author of William Penn and the Quaker Legacy, presents William Penns life in a very informational and positively biased story through his years. He looks majorily on the side that William Penns decisions were right and that his childhood and young adulthood, founding of Pennsylvania, and in his later years his selling of Pennsylvania were all done well. William Penn accomplished a lot and was an esteemed gentleman, and the author really portaysRead MoreWilliam Penn Essay2985 Words   |  12 PagesWilliam Penn and the Quaker Legacy For many Americans, William Penn is just known as the Quaker leader who founded Pennsylvania and for his ‘Holy Experiment’. Penn’s achievements were far greater than just the founding of a colony. He had devotion and spirit and love for the Quaker sect and in turn spent his whole life trying to get others to see the good in Quakerism and create toleration for the religion. In the biography of William Penn and the Quaker Legacy, John Moretta asserts that WilliamRead MoreWilliam Penn And A New Society1878 Words   |  8 PagesWhat did William Penn envision for his society, and what kept his society from developing into what he wanted and being successful long-term? William Penn and A New Society Nearly a century before the original 13 colonies were declared as independent, William Penn initiated the colony Pennsylvania that bore its own independence based on individual and religious freedom. He is recognized as one of the seventeenth century s most devoted advocates of liberty of conscience. Although establishing aRead MoreEssay on Colonization of Pennsylvanis by William Penn1298 Words   |  6 Pagesequally great men. William Penn, for example, is one of these great men. William Penn and his accomplishments changed the way we think about the early colonization of America. Penn founded Pennsylvania as well as Philadelphia, which became the greatest city in the new world. Penn was devoted to religious freedom. Most early settlers only wanted to convert people but Penn wanted tolerance for all religions. Penn also developed important legislature, for that time. William Penn was a great QuakerRead MoreWilliam Penn American Hero Essay1490 Words   |  6 Pages Should William Penn be a heroic figure to American history? Throughout British proprietary colonization of the Americas, there were many different motives for claiming American soil by those whom were audacious enough to consider the prospect of funding a distant statehood. Penn claimed to see his colony as a â€Å"holy experiment† (page XIII); who differed from its â€Å"peers† in the respect that it had intent to provide refuge to those whom faced religious persecution, even so, t he â€Å"devout† Quaker, eventuallyRead MoreWilliam Penn John Winthrops Goals in Colonization Essay610 Words   |  3 Pagesled by William Penn, were escaping persecution from England but each they had their own views and goals in religion, politics, and ethnic relations. Being on the native land of the local Indians, both Penn and Winthrop had to face issues and negotiations with the Indians. Penn and Winthrop had their own separate approaches to politics but they both sought a more just system than the one in England. After being persecuted, both Penn and Winthrop wanted their people to be free worship, but Penn and WinthropRead MoreThe Colonial Settlements Of The Quakers1753 Words   |  8 PagesQuakers, who are also known as the Society of Friends, who settled in New Jersey and Pennsylvania in colonial times. The history surrounding the establishment and growth of the Quaker colonies of West Jersey and Pennsylvania will be discussed. William Penn’s efforts in establishing the colonies of West Jersey and Pennsylvania were paramount to Quakers immigrating to America. John Fenwick also played a major role in founding the colony of West Jersey, which is now known as New Jersey and the laterRead MoreElizabeth I And Later The English Monarchs Essay1662 Words   |  7 PagesPennsylvania. William Penn s laws would help expand, but also limit, religious freedom in Pennsylvania. In the 1670s Penn helped to transform the struggle politically and intellectually, and his contribution is present in the framing of Government and the early laws of Pennsylvania. As the state of Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn in 1682, Penn s life was all about his opposition to persecution for religion. As a safe place for Quakers to live and practice their faith. ‘’Penn welcomed settlersRead MoreElizabeth I And Later The English Monarchs Essay1687 Words   |  7 PagesPennsylvania. William Penn s laws would help expand, but also limit, religious freedom in Pennsylvania. In the 1670s Penn helped to transform the struggle politically and intellectually, and his contribution is present in the framing of Government and the early laws of Pennsylvania. As the state of Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn in 1682, Penn s life was all about his opposition to persecution for religion. As a safe place for Quakers to live and practice their faith. ‘’Penn welcomed settlersRead MoreA History Of The Gilpin Family2181 Words   |  9 Pagesintegral part of American History since their arrival in 1695. The family, who arrived, as part of an initial large wave of Quakers in America, carved out a place in American, more specifically Quaker History. Coming to America, at the invitation of William Penn, and deeply embroiled in significant events in American History, the Gilpin s were early founders of Pennsylvania. Their Quaker background proved to be of primary importance in precisely how the family participated in important events, like

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Child Labor During The United States - 1512 Words

Statement of the problem: Many of the products that are used and consumed in the United States are made in other countries. One of the main reasons for multinational corporations to produce goods in countries other than the United States is the cost of production. It is far cheaper to produce goods such as blue jeans, paper goods, and plastic toys to name a few. In recent years the conditions in sweatshops in China, Japan, and elsewhere have garnered public outcry from Countries like the U.S. and most of Europe. The main contention, child labor in dangerous and horrid conditions. However one often overlooked example of child labor in sweatshop-like conditions exists were many people never thought. The chocolate we eat. â€Å"From 2013 to 2014 more than 1.1 million children in the Ivory Coast were engaged in the most common Worst Forms of Child Labor as recognized by the United Nations†¦ up from 791,181 children from 2008 to 2009† (Berman, 2015). The benefactors of this ch ild labor are huge multinational enterprises such as Nestle, Mars Inc., and The Hershey Co. The children subjected to the forced labor allegedly used to make Mars, Hershey’s and Nestle chocolate are victims of hazardous work such as that involving dangerous tools, transport of heavy loads and exposure to toxic substances and the compulsory labor of trafficked children (Berman, 2015). A report commissioned by the U.S. government in 2011 included testimony from a twelve-year old boy named Kuadio Kouako who wasShow MoreRelatedChild Labour : A History Essay1228 Words   |  5 PagesChild Labour in The United States Child Labour: A History America and The Industrial Revolution ‘Forms of child labor, including indentured servitude and child slavery, have existed throughout American history.’ (http://www.continuetolearn.uiowa.edu/laborctr/child_labor/about/us_history.html) During the years following the Civil War, (http://americanhistory.about.com/od/industrialrev/a/indrevoverview.htm) the American working class made an abrupt transition away from farm work and home choresRead MoreEssay about The Globalization of Child Labor1517 Words   |  7 Pagesbeneficial worldwide, but globalization can also effect countries and people negatively. Child labor was once an immense issue in the United States; however, we now have laws protecting children from dangerous working conditions. Unfortunately, children in countries like India and Africa are still falling victim to harsh working conditions. These developing nations have the same problem that the United States had years ago; children are working long hours with little pay and are working in very dangerousRead MoreChild Labor Essay809 Words   |  4 PagesChild labor has been an extremely serious issue since the early industrial revolution and it continues to be an issue today. The movement towards the industrial revolution increased demand for labor, especially cheap labor, which targeted young children as a means for performing work in the factories. Since it was an economically growing era for the United States, children in the 18th century worked long hours for low minimum wage under harsh conditions to help their families. Children were easilyRead MoreSecond Industrial Revolution1000 Words   |  4 PagesDarris Adkins Abstract In this brief paper, a description of two developments of industrialization that positively affected the United States and two developments that negatively affected the United States will be discussed. An analysis of whether or not industrialization was generally beneficial or detrimental to the lives of Americans and the history of the United States will be outlined. Second US Industrial Revolution, 1870 -1910 In this brief paper, a description of two developments of industrializationRead MoreChild Labor After the American Civil War699 Words   |  3 PagesIn the late 1700s and early 1800s, power-driven machines began to replace hand labor for the production of nearly all manufactured items. Factories began to pop up everywhere, first in England and then the United States was soon to follow in their footsteps. There were numerous factories and to meet the needs of the owners of these factories they had to get creative and find people of all walks of life to put to work. Sadly, their solution to the in demand workers was putting children, sometimesRead MoreThe Most Dangerous Industry Of The United States957 Words   |  4 Pagesemployed in the United falling just short of 20 percent of the workforce. Thirty years later in the 1900 census, two million children were working in mills, mines, fields, factories, stores, and on city streets across the United States. But with increasing number s of children being put into the workforce, the conditions in which they worked rapidly declined. Such rapidly declining conditions were due to â€Å"compulsory education laws, massive inflows of inexpensive immigrant labor, and technologicalRead MoreEssay about Child Labor: Nowhere Is Without1312 Words   |  6 Pagesworking. The interpretation of the words, â€Å"Child Labor,† has changed vastly over the centuries ago it began. Furthermore, the use of child labor around the world has persisted and grown from the centuries ago it began. Regrettably, child labor can be found everywhere in the world and in a multitude of industries, and these industries are responsible for the many varieties of child labor. Also, throughout history, children have been used as a source of labor, building economies and supporting governmentsRead MoreChild Labor Is A Violation Of Fundamental Human Rights1553 Words   |  7 Pages 405292 Child Labor Republic of France Position Paper Part 1 History and Background of Child Labor Child labor became most prevalent during the Industrial Revolution, which took place from 1760-1840, and has become prominent throughout our world since. Children would work around 19 hours a day, having approximately a one hour break, and work for almost no pay. In the 1900’s, statistics showed that over 200 million children were involved in the act of child labor worldwide, and 73 millionRead Moreâ€Å"When People In The United States Think Of ChildrenS Rights1722 Words   |  7 Pagesthe United States think of children s rights they usually think of children in third world countries who are victims of abusive child labor practices or insurmountable poverty† (Wilson 1). However, in reality it is not just in third world countries, it is also in the United States. From the American colonial period till the mid nineteenth century, child labor has been an important issue. It has taken many years to come to an agreement of the definition of child labor. One way to defin e child laborRead MoreChild Labor Laws In the 1800s1462 Words   |  6 PagesChild Labor Laws In The 1800s Child Labor, once known as the practice of employing young children in factories, now its used as a term for the employment of minors in general, especially in work that would interfere with their education or endanger their health. Throughout history and in all cultures children would work in the fields with their parents, or in the marketplace and young girls in the home until they were old enough to perform simple tasks. The use of child labor was not a problem

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Dissertation Topics in Psychology (2018) Free Essays

1. Introduction to Psychology Dissertations This guide gives you some ideas for dissertation titles. Psychology covers many areas, so there should be plenty to whet your appetite here. We will write a custom essay sample on Dissertation Topics in Psychology (2018) or any similar topic only for you Order Now Psychology dissertations typically take one of two forms, focusing either upon collecting and analyzing primary data or upon appraising secondary data only. Either type can be appropriate to your area of study. You will also find an overview of how to structure your dissertation in section three below. 2. Categories and List of Dissertation Titles 2.1 Developmental and Educational Psychology 2.1.1Are children’s eating behaviours and attitudes towards food affected by parents with eating disordersA quantitative study. 2.1.2Stranger danger Children’s internalizations of ‘the other’: a qualitative study. 2.1.3Father figures and perceptions of masculine authority in the pre-adolescent children of single mothers: a qualitative study. 2.1.4 To what extent is Vygotsky’s theories of child development a product of his cultural background, and do they have application to our post-capitalist societyA critical analysis of the literature. 2.1.5 Can attachment theory be used to explain the development of a subjective self in the child A literature review. 2.1.6 Does identifying children’s learning styles help improve outcomes: a quantitative study of primary school children. 2.1.7 Can the concept of reflective practice be used to help children learn in UK schools: a qualitative study. 2.1.8 What measures can be taken to help children suffering from anxiety disorders perform better in tests: a review of the literature. 2.2 Mental Health and Abnormal Psychology 2.2.1 To what extent does conflict over food in childhood impact on problematic attitudes to eating in adolescenceA qualitative study amongst anorexia sufferers. 2.2.2 The extent to which perceptions of social stigma impact upon sufferer’s coping strategies: a quantitative study. 2.2.3 The impact of diet on depression: can a ‘Mediterranean’ diet reduce symptoms in those prone to depressionA literature review. 2.2.4 To what extent are people with learning difficulties less or more likely to suffer from phobiasA review of the literature. 2.2.5 Can yoga and meditation be effective treatment options for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A randomized controlled study amongst OCD patients. 2.2.6 Does personality type impact upon patient outcomes for hospitalization for mental disorders A quantitative study in a large UK hospital. 2.2.7 Is there a link between self-harm in adolescent females and use of social networking sitesA qualitative study amongst British teenage girls. 2.2.8 What is the relationship between children’s home routines and treatment for ADHDA study of the literature. 2.3 Social Psychology 2.3.1 Conceptual models of riots and civil unrest: a critical analysis of the recent riots in the UK. 2.3.2 What is the relationship between narcissism and the use of social media such as facebookA quantitative study amongst UK students. 2.3.3 Mad, bad or dangerousAssessing changing social attitudes to mental illness through a study of magazine and TV advertising. 2.3.4 What do reactions to work uniforms reveal about attitudes to authority and control: a qualitative study amongst UK supermarket, bank and council workers. 2.3.5 Gender, marketing and internet presence: a critical analysis of images of women in corporate website branding. 2.3.6 Private, public and liminal spaces: what are car driver’s perceptions of other road usersA qualitative investigation amongst regular drivers. 2.3.7 Gendered nights: the range of gendered behaviours in fetish clubs and bars. An ethnographic investigation carried out in London, Swansea and Manchester. 2.3.8 Can music be used to reduce low-level criminal behaviour in public placesA quantitative study of an urban bus station. 2.4 Counselling and Therapy 2.4.1 Counselling and power: to what extent does the counselor/client relationship demonstrate an unequal balance of power A literature review. 2.4.2 Does Freudian psychoanalysis have any place in the current UK health serviceA qualitative study amongst healthcare professionals. 2.4.3 Does length of treatment affect outcome for patients undergoing cognitive behavioural therapyA quantitative study of adults. 2.4.4 Can ideas about ecology contribute to therapy and counsellingA review of the literature. 2.4.5. Projective testing: an outmoded technique in current counselling and therapy practiceA critical overview of the UK situation. 2.4.6 How effective are cognitive behavioural therapy self-help techniques when used with children under 13 A quantitative study of pre-adolescent children. 2.4.7 To what extent can computer-aided cognitive behavioural therapy be a substitute for CBT with a trained therapist A qualitative study amongst UK CBT therapists and practitioners. 2.4.8 Is there a role for the unconscious in life coaching, and if so which theoretical models are most appropriate A review of the literature. 2.5 Consumer and Industrial Psychology 2.5.1 Fashion Tribes: can Cova’s concept of tribal marketing be used to analyse the brand image of high street fashion retailers. A case study of five UK brands. 2.5.2 Colour and shopper motivation: a quantitative study of the impact of colour in own-brand packaging by leading UK supermarkets. 2.5.3 Hierarchy, authority and the workplace: a comparison of attitudes to authority between a rigidly hierarchical UK workplace and one with an egalitarian structure. 2.5.4 Diesel dyke or lipstick lesbianChanging images of gay women in advertising and the media: a literature review. 2.5.5 To what extent can Hofstede’s concept of cultural dimensions be useful in understanding international branding: a comparative study of 3 global organizations. 2.5.6 Can ideas from counseling and psychotherapy be used to enhance the corporate annual review for employees A primary study carried out in a leading UK financial services provider. 2.5.7 Burnout amongst executive staff: what are the main predictorsA review of literature from the UK and Europe. 2.5.8Industrial psychology and interior design: How have ideas about workforce motivation and reward affected the look of the office or factoryA critical and historical review. 3. How to Structure a Psychology Dissertation, Tips For details on how to structure a marketing dissertation, kindly check out the following post: How to Structure a dissertation (chapters) How to structure a dissertation (chapters and subchapters) How to structure a dissertation research proposal How to cite Dissertation Topics in Psychology (2018), Essays

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

Otherwise known as anti-violence against women free essay sample

Violence comes in many forms. It is not just physical, like a black eye or a swollen face. Other forms of violence are less visible but equally painful and damaging. Incidents involving video-taping and the posting or circulating of such material has brought about many questions as to what kind of abuse or violence is punishable. There is currently no law that specifically punishes the acts of video-taping a sexual or other private act and circulating this content without the consent of the persons involved. I filed a bill in the senate known as The Anti-Video Voyeurism Act of 2009 that seeks to punish these acts. I hope this will be heard and passed into law soon. At present though, victims can take refuge in Republic Act 9262 otherwise known as the Anti-violence against Women and Children Act of 2004 which penalizes various forms of violence. A victim can also claim for damages. There has been a spate of cases filed against prominent male personalities by their wives/former ex-wives, etc. We will write a custom essay sample on Otherwise known as anti-violence against women or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page For violation of Republic Act 9262. Some of those who filed include Kris Aquino, Sunshine Cruz, and even the wife of a former Senator. This begs the question, what is R. A. 9262? And why do all abused women use it against their significant others? R. A. 9262 is also known as the Anti-Violence Against Women and Children Act (VAWC). It has become a favored tool for addressing the grievances of women in abusive relationships because of its expansive provisions. Violence against women and children are defined under the law as â€Å"any act or a series of acts committed by any person against a woman who is his wife, former wife, or against a woman with whom the person has or had a sexual or dating relationship, or with whom he has a common child, or against her child whether legitimate or illegitimate, within or without the family abode, which result in or is likely to result in physical, sexual, psychological harm or suffering, or economic abuse including threats of such acts, battery, assault, coercion, harassment or arbit round the world at least one woman in every three has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime. Every year, violence in the home and the community devastates the lives of millions of women. Gender-based violence kills and disables as many women between the ages of 15 and 44 as cancer, and its toll on womens health surpasses that of traffic accidents and malaria combined. 1 Violence against women is rooted in a global culture of discrimination which denies women equal rights with men and which legitimizes the appropriation of womens bodies for individual gratification or political ends. Violence against women feeds off discrimination and serves to reinforce it. When women are abused in custody, when they are raped by armed forces as spoils of war, or when they are terrorized by violence in the home, unequal power relations between men and women are both manifested and enforced. Violence against women is compounded by discrimination on the grounds of race, ethnicity, sexual identity, social status, class, and age. Such multiple forms of discrimination further restrict womens choices, increase their vulnerability to violence and make it even harder for women to obtain justice. There is an unbroken spectrum of violence that women face at the hands of people who exert control over them. States have the obligation to prevent, protect against, and punish violence against women whether perpetrated by private or public actors. States have a responsibility to uphold standards of due diligence and take steps to fulfill their responsibility to protect individuals from human rights abuses. Statement of the Problem Generally, the study sought to determine the implementation of R. A. 9262 otherwise known as Anti-Violence Against Women and Children in Calapan City Oriental Mindoro. Specifically, the study answered the following questions: 1. What is the impact of implementation of the R. A. 9262 in terms of: 1. 1 age 1. 2 gender 1. 3. healthcare 1. 4. penalty 1. 5. protection order? 2. What is the process of implementation of R. A. 9262 in terms of: 2. 1 physical violence 2. 2 sexual violence 2. 3 psychological violence 2. 4 economic violence? 3. Is there a significant relationship between the impact and process of Implementation of R. A. Otherwise known as the Anti-Violence Against Women and Children Act of 2004 in Calapan City Oriental Mindoro? 4. Is there a significant difference on the impact of the Implementation of R. A. 9262 in terms of age, gender, healthcare, penalty and protection order? 5. Is there a significant difference on the process of implementation of R. A. 9262 in terms of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence and economic violence? Statement of the Hypothesis 1. There is no significant relationship between the process and impact of the implementation of R. A. 9262. 2. There is no significant difference on the impact of implementation of R. A. 9262 in terms of age, gender, healthcare, penalty and protection order. There is no significant difference on the process of implementation of R. A. 9262 in terms of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence and economic violence. Scope and Limitation of the Study The researcher focused on the impact and process of implementation of R. A. 9262 otherwise known as Anti-Violence Against Women and Children Act of 2004 in Calapan City Oriental Mindoro. The study assessed the impact on implementation of R. A. 9262 in terms of age, gender, healthcare, penalty and protection order; and the process of R. A. 9262 in terms of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence and economic violence. Respondents of the study were the 75 children and women who were involved in this act. The questionnaire were administered at the selected barangays in Calapan City Oriental Mindoro covering academic year 2013-2014. Significance of the Study The study were significant to the following persons: Oriental Mindoro Police Personnel. This study may provide an insight on the significance of implementation of this act and competency in their tactical skills. Women’s Desk Personnel. The result of the study may guide the women’s desk personnel to improve their knowledge regarding the implementation of R. A. 9262 Women and Children . They would provide with information on the implementation of the R. A. 9262. Criminology Instructors. This study may enable the criminology instructor to assess the OJT performance of the intern and for the enhancement of criminology profession to produce globally competitive criminologist. Criminology Students. The result of the study may be helpful to the criminology students to determine the different acts and protection in the R. A. 9262 that should be strengthened. Future Researchers. They may use the information from the result of this study for further research. Definition of Terms For better understanding of this study, the following terms were operationally and conceptually defined: Barangay Protection Orders (BPOs)- refer to the protection order issued by the Punong Barangay ordering the perpetrator to desist from committing acts under Section 5 (a) and (b) of this Act. Battered Woman Syndrome- refers to a scientifically defined pattern of psychological and behavioral symptoms found in women living in battering relationships as a result of cumulative abuse. Battery- refers to an act of inflicting physical harm upon the woman or her child resulting to the physical and psychological or emotional distress. Children-refers to those below eighteen (18) years of age or older but are incapable of taking care of themselves as defined under Republic Act No. 7610. As used in this Act, it includes the biological children of the victim and other children under her care. Dating relationship- refers to a situation wherein the parties live as husband and wife without the benefit of marriage or are romantically involved over time and on a continuing basis during the course of the relationship. A casual acquaintance or ordinary socialization between two individuals in a business or social context is not a dating relationship. Domestic abuse- known as spousal abuse,that occurs when one person in an intimate relationship or marriage tries to dominate and control the other person. Domestic abuse that includes physical violence is called domestic violence. Economic abuse- refers to acts that make or attempt to make a woman financially dependent. Physical Violence- refers to acts that include bodily or physical harm. Protection Orders- A protection order is an order issued under this act for the purpose of preventing further acts of violence against a woman or her child specified in Section 5 of this Act and granting other necessary relief. Psychological violence- refers to acts or omissions causing or likely to cause mental or emotional suffering of the victim such as but not limited to intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage to property, public ridicule or humiliation, repeated verbal abuse and mental infidelity. It includes causing or allowing the victim to witness the physical, sexual or psychological abuse of a member of the family to which the victim belongs, or to witness pornography in any form or to witness abusive injury to pets or to unlawful or unwanted deprivation of the right to custody and/or visitation of common children. Relief -granted under a protection order serve the purpose of safeguarding the victim from further harm, minimizing any disruption in the victims daily life, and facilitating the opportunity and ability of the victim to independently regain control over her life. Safe place or shelter- refers to any home or institution maintained or managed by the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) or by any other agency or voluntary organization accredited by the DSWD for the purposes of this Act or any other suitable place the resident of which is willing temporarily to receive the victim. Sexual relations -refers to a single sexual act which may or may not result in the bearing of a common child. Sexual violence- refers to an act which is sexual in nature, committed against a woman or her child. Stalking refers to an intentional act committed by a person who, knowingly and without lawful justification follows the woman or her child or places the woman or her child under surveillance directly or indirectly or a combination thereof. Violence against women and their children refers to any act or a series of acts committed by any person against a woman who is his wife, former wife, or against a woman with whom the person has or had a sexual or dating relationship, or with whom he has a common child, or against her child whether legitimate or illegitimate, within or without the family abode, which result in or is likely to result in physical, sexual, psychological harm or suffering, or economic abuse including threats of such acts, battery, assault, coercion, harassment or arbitrary deprivation of liberty. Theoretical Framework This study were anchored on the following reviews of management and motivation theories. The Expectancy Theory of Motivation by Vroom (2005) holds that people are motivated to do things and to reach a goal if they believe in the worth of the goal they set and if they can see that what they do will help them achieve it. Luther (2005) subscribes and said that everything done in the world is do ne in hope. (Santos, 2010) Vroom (2005) expanded that peoples motivation toward doing anything is largely determined by the value placed on the outcome and output of their effort(whether positive or negative), that is, multiplied by the confidence they have and their efforts will materially aid in achieving a goal. He pointed out that motivation is a product of the anticipated worth that an individual places on a goal and the chances he or she sees of achieving a goal, thus: (Force = valence x expectancy) where force is the strength of the persons motivation; valence is the strength of an individuals preference for an outcome; and expectancy, the probability that a particular action will lead to the desired outcome. (Santos, 2010) The precepts of the theory lend credence and basis to the present research study. The Calapan Police Station is institutionalized with multifarious objectives to accomplish and attain wherein its members are driven and motivated to maintain peace, order and establish the atmosphere of trust among women, children and youth by implementing the legal framework of peace keeping. In every effort taken by the Calapan Police Station it anticipates that positive results could be achieved because it fully perceives of overwhelming support it derives from the people aside from the fact that it has been endowed with technical, financial and human resources to succeed in its endeavor. Another theory which relates to the operations and services of thesis the Systems Theory to Operational Management by Weirich and Koontz(2003). They emphasized that an organized enterprise does not, of course, exist in a vacuum. It is rather dependent on its external environment which is a part of a larger system to which it belongs, the economic system and society. Thus, the enterprise receives inputs, transforms them, and exports the outputs to the environment. (Griffin, 2009) The inputs from the external environment include people, capital and managerial kills as well as technical knowledge and skills. Various groups of people make demands on the enterprise. Basically, managers transform the inputs, in an effective and efficient manner, into outputs. The transformation process can be viewed from different perspectives, thus, one can focus on such diverse enterprise functions as finance, production, personnel and marketing. Particularly, the transformation processes are viewed according to an approach to management. The relationship of the theory to the present research study points the significance of resources available at the Calapan Police Station , which it needs to use very effectively in implementing R. A. 9262. These resources, of whatever types and kinds, largely contribute to the success of the programs prepared for women, children and youth especially if proper management of resources used is planned together by the group. However, the insufficiency of the resources, may mean a partial or total failure. Meanwhile, the responses and reception of beneficiaries to the program are also valuable in determining the effectiveness of the R. A. 9262 in Calapan City. , thus, the Calapan Police Station could manifest satisfaction because it has been able to create better output from the inputs it has transformed. The Contingency Theory to Leadership as advanced by Fiedler (2003) is also related to the current research study. Contingency theory holds that people become leaders not only because of the attributes of their personalities but also because of various situational factors and the interactions between leaders and group members. (Carlos, 2007) Fiedler (2003) identifies three critical areas of leadership which help determine how leadership could be most effective, hence: position power; task structure; and leader-member relations are presented below: a. ) Position Power distinguishes a person from one another based on the power endowed to him. This helps leaders get members comply with directions and rules advocated by an organization. b. ) Task structure helps leaders in spelling out tasks to be assigned to a member whom leaders hold responsible for them. c. ) Leader-member relations determine how each and every member of an organization comes to like, trust and follow the leader. All concepts of an organization incorporated in the preceding theory are binding to the present research. It is the researchers view that Calapan City Police Station plans, implements and evaluates its R. A. 9262 based on how the organization is set up and expected to function as guided by some standard operating procedures and orders. The Chief of Operations is definitely followed and whose power and authority are perceived with due high respect, however, the same has to treat subject his members with due respect and dignity. This is how the Calapan City Police Station as the organization functions, because it is an structured, hierarchically ordered and the leaders/members conceived of the significant contributions of their respective roles to the implementation of peace keeping thrusts. From all the three foregoing theories, the Calapan City Police Station derives its power, basis and thoughts of planning and implementing R. A. 9262. The Systems Approach to Operational Management, of all situations, is properly fitted and most related to the present research study. In general, the operations and services rendered by the Provincial Jail are dependent upon the kind of management practice and techniques adhered to by the PNP organization. All the three enumerated theories are quite similar to each other because each one of them has concentration on effective organizational function as influenced by the fundamental principles of motivation, leadership, and management. These theories properly represent all of the variables used in this research. As such status of the implementation of R. A. 9262 may be anchored on the precepts of Vrooms Theory of Motivation. Level of contribution and extent of effectiveness of operational services of the Calapan City Police Station may be incorporated in either Systems Approach to Operational Management by Weirich and Koontz and the Contingency Theory of Leadership by Fiedler. Conceptual Model Based on the theoretical discussions, the conceptual model is drawn below. IV DV Figure 1 Hypothesized Relationship and Difference Between Variables Figure 1 presents the conceptual model of the study. Two variables are included in the study. The independent variable is the impact of the R. A. In  terms of age, gender, healthcare, penalty and protection order. The dependent variable is the process of the R. A. 9262 in terms of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence , and economic violence. The one-headed arrow signifies the hypothesized relationship between variables. The two headed arrows inside the independent and dependent variables test the difference on their variables or sub-indicators. Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES The following are the summary of readings synthesized by the researcher from various literature and studies which have significant bearing to the current study. Foreign Literature According to O’canor During the USE RA 9262 National Network of Family Violence Prevention Programs (NNFVPP) Partners’ Assembly last October 17-20, 2011, participants shared that there is now an increasing number of women victim-survivors who file for Barangay Protection Orders (BPO) or formal cases against perpetrators of abuse/violence against women and their children (VAWC). Most of them attributed this progress to the organization. Quincy (2009) mentioned that Domestic abuse, also known as spousal abuse, occurs when one person in an intimate relationship or marriage tries to dominate and control the other person. Domestic abuse that includes physical violence is called domestic violence. Stuart (2001)mentioned that domestic violence and abuse are used for one purpose and one purpose only: to gain and maintain total control over you. An abuser doesn’t â€Å"play fair. † Abusers use fear, guilt, shame, and intimidation to wear you down and keep you under his or her thumb. Your abuser may also threaten you, hurt you, or hurt those around you. A World Bank (1993) study states that among women aged 15-44 worldwide, gender-based violence accounts for more death and ill-health than cancer, traffic injuries and malaria put together. Country-level studies of UNICEF (2000) estimates that there are 20 to 50 percent of women who have experienced domestic violence, making it the most prevalent form of gender-based violence. The same is true in the Philippines, where battering is the most prevalent, and rape second. Recognizing the seriousness of the problem. The data on violence against women and children is alarming. Congress passed R. A. No. 9262 which took effect on March 27, 2004. According to UNICEF,(2006) children living in families where domestic violence occurs may be exposed to intimate partner violence and abuse in a number of ways. They may be direct witnesses to abuse, may suffer harm incidental to the domestic abuse, may have their lives disrupted by moving or being separated from parents, may be used by the batterer to manipulate or gain control over the victim, and they themselves are more likely to be abused. Exposure to domestic violence is widespread internationally and it is associated with other forms of child maltreatment. According to the Federal (2010), domestic violence and abuse does not discriminate. It happens among heterosexual couples and in same-sex partnerships. It occurs within all age ranges, ethnic backgrounds, and economic levels. And while women are more commonly victimized, men are also abused—especially verbally and emotionally, although sometimes even physically as well. The bottom line is that abusive behavior is never acceptable, whether it’s coming from a man, a woman, a teenager, or an older adult. You deserve to feel valued, respected, and safe. According to Lundy Bancroft, among others, children are sometimes used by batterers to manipulate or spy on their victims, becoming a tool for the abusive partner. A batterer may threaten to take custody of or kidnap the children if the victim reports the abuse; he may also threaten to harm or kill the children. In addition, a batterer often insults and demeans his victim’s parenting of the children. He may also tell her that she will lose custody if she seeks help or tries to get a divorce because she allowed the abuse to happen. He may even harm the children in order to control their mother. During and after separation, batterers continue to use these tactics. Unsupervised visitation and joint custody, in particular, provide the batterer with opportunities to abuse, threaten and intimidate their former partners even when no longer living with them. Mothers’ and children’s human rights are violated by state actors in the U. S. such as the court system and child protection workers, which have been documented in Massachusetts and Arizona. According to the American Medical Association, the problem is not confined to the emergency departments. Physicians in all practice settings routinely see the consequences of violence and abuse, but often fail to acknowledge their violent etiologies, reported a 1994 AMA publication on domestic violence. By recognizing and treating the effects of domestic violence, and by providing referrals for shelter, counseling and advocacy, physicians can help battered women regain control of their lives. Local Literature Asia Society for Social Improvement and Sustainable Transformation (ASSIST) and the Women’s Crisis Center are holding Barangay Campaigns for the USE RA 9262 (Undertaking Survivors’ Experience in accessing RA 9262 – The Anti-Violence against Women and Children (Anti-VAWC) Act) Project on September 16, 17 and 18 in Brgy. UP Campus, Brgy. Bagong Silangan and Brgy. Sta. Lucia Domestic violence and abuse can happen to anyone, yet the problem is often overlooked, excused, or denied. This is especially true when the abuse is psychological, rather than physical. Noticing and acknowledging the signs of an abusive relationshipis the first step to ending it. No one should live in fear of the person they love. If you recognize yourself or someone you know in the following warning signs and descriptions of abuse, reach out. There is help available. According to the PNP (2009), Melissa Martel stands out among thousands of women who suffered abuse because she is probably the first woman who got a Temporary Protection Order against her husband, whom she sued for Frustrated Parricide. The Family Court of Makati City issued a Temporary Protection Order on May 4, 2004, a day after Melissa’s petition. Without Republic Act No. 9262, otherwise known as the Anti-Violence Against Women and their Children Act of 2004 (Anti-VAWCA), abused women would not have such an immediate relief. DSDW (2008, state that the Anti-VAWCA is a result of nine years of advocacy of victim-survivors, women’s rights and human rights advocates, non-government organizations, and government organizations led by the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women. This law is also in compliance with the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) which the Senate ratified in 1981. According to, he has a three-year-old law, RA 9262, protecting the interests of battered wives and their children and giving substance to the equality of the sexes. Well and good. (Federico D. Pascual JR, 2004) But now some of the menfolk hit by the â€Å"Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004† complain that the law is skewed against the male partner as even abusive women are favored. There was this seaman, for instance, faithfully sending dollars to his wife. She was not communicating, because, he learned later, she was having an affair. One day the car he bought when he was still single figured in an accident while being driven by his wife’s paramour. When he refused to reconcile and live with his wife upon his return, she sued under RA 9262. The court issued a protection order and the seaman lost all his properties registered under his wife’s name. He was even ordered to surrender his car to her. In another case, a woman colluded with her live-in partner’s children from a prior marriage to partition for themselves the properties while the man was away serving sentence in prison. Soon after his return, the woman abandoned him and applied for a protection order by alleging physical and psychological violence. The woman then used the court order to try to evict him from his own residence without hearing.   According to the 2008 Statistical Report of the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women (NCFRW), violence against women (VAW) cases in the Philippines rose to 21 percent from the 2007 report. With the implementation of the Republic Act 9262 (RA 9262) or the Anti Violence against Women and Children Act of 2004, it is alarming that the number of violations against women’s rights did not decrease and has in fact risen. Thus, the USE RA 9262 – Undertaking Survivors’ Experiences in accessing RA 9262 – Web Portal seeks to enhance the existing network of individual, groups, non government organizations (NGOs) and government institutions who are advocating the effective implementation of the law for the promotion of women’s rights. The USE RA 9262 Web Portal is a compendium of related literature, studies and discussions from the different stakeholders advancing anti violence against women and children (VAWC). Foreign Studies Researchers Evan Stark, directors of the University of Connecticut Health Care Centers Domestic Violence Training Project, on his study â€Å"Impact and Reaction on R. A. 9262† have concluded that domestic violence may be the single most common cause of injury among women seeking medical attention, surpassing auto accidents, muggings, and rape combined. Their studies show that 40 percent of the women seeking medical attention are, or have been, victims of such violence. They estimate that from 20 to 25 percent of the women in the United States––more than 12 million––are at risk of being abused by an intimate male partner. As many as 4 million women are battered each year in this country; nearly three thousand are killed. Melissa Wade, (2008) on her study entitled â€Å"Violence against Women and Children† found at that many women, victims of domestic violence, live in fear of pain and death. They are isolated, often lacking in self-esteem. They tend to blame themselves for what is happening and they try to explain away the bruises and broken bones. They may suffer depression and anxiety; some turn to drugs or alcohol and attempt suicide. A surprising number of them prove to be survivors; they develop strategies to endure and to protect themselves and their children. However, without help, escape is terrifyingly difficult. Few can simply walk away. Even if they flee, they may be stalked, harassed, or killed. Miley Wilhelm,(2009) on her Master’s Thesis entitled â€Å"Implementation of R. AS. 9262† found out that the traumatic impact of domestic violence on children is well documented. Rich or poor, these are children at risk. Most survive (often at great physical and emotional cost), others do poorly in school, drop out, or run away. Some turn to violent crime, some find marginal jobs, and others may even have successful careers. They have children and repeat the violent cycle: abused boys and girls who become abusive parents. Mary M. Ricafort, (2005) on her Master Thesis entitled â€Å"Effectiveness of R. A. 9292 on the Children and Women† found out that school children show that youngsters from violent homes are twice as likely to commit brutal acts as children growing up in nonviolent homes; victims of child abuse and/or neglect are far more apt to become violent teenagers; the highest rates of youth violence and criminal conduct occur where there is both spouse abuse and child abuse. Anne H. Flitcraft, (2008) on her study entitled â€Å"Violation against Women and Children† found out an alarming connection between family violence and violent juvenile behavior. Violence of all kinds is on the increase. U. S. Justice Department reports show that the number of juveniles charged with violent crimes is up sharply; the murder rates have more than doubled in two decades; the suicide rate has doubled. While their numbers may be relatively small, the most violent of these youngsters display shocking behavior. The damage they do is horrendous. The cost of apprehending and incarcerating these violent young criminals runs into the billions of dollars. Graham-Bermann Seng (2005),on their study entitled â€Å"Violence Exposure and Traumatic Stress Symptoms as Additional Predictors of Health Problems in High-Risk Children† found out that low-income pre-school children in the U. S. State of Michigan found that nearly half of the children in the study had been exposed to at least one incident of mild or severe violence in the family. Those children who had been exposed to violence suffered symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, such as bed-wetting or nightmares, and were at greater risk than their peers of having allergies, asthma, gastrointestinal problems, headaches and flu. Whitfield, Anda, Dube, Felittle (2003),on their study entitled †Violent Childhood Experiences and the Risk of Intimate Partner Violence in Adults† found out that assessment in a large Health Maintenance Organization Children may be direct witnesses to domestic violence, often seeing abusive incidents or hearing violence as it happens in their homes and families. As witnesses, children may be considered secondary victims and can be harmed psychologically and emotionally. According to a study published in 2003, over 15 million children in the U. S. lived in families where intimate partner violence had occurred at least once in the past year, and seven million children live in families in which severe partner violence occurred. The National Network to End Domestic Violence, (2009)on their studies entitled â€Å"Domestic Violence Counts 2008: A 24-hour Census of Domestic Violence Shelters and Services† found out that children can be displaced by the domestic violence when they seek shelter along with their abused parent. While statistics are not available globally, many shelters take in children as well as their abused parent. According to a study of domestic violence shelters and services in the U. S. , in a single day in 2008, 16,458 children were living in a domestic violence shelter or transitional housing facility, while an additional 6,430 children sought services at a non-residential program. Local Studies Evelyn Cantos(2009) on her Master’s Thesis entitled â€Å"Impact of Domestic Violence on Womens† found out that violence seriously affects women’s health. Women who reported violence were more likely to report poor general health and reported more physical symptoms of ill health, emotional distress, miscarriages